Netters Anatomy Flash Cards, Fourth Edition - John T. bernasungueta.ga Ayko Nyush. John F. Kennedy Blvd. Ste Philadelphia, PA NETTER'S. The following are sample images from Clinical Anatomy Flash. Cards, a clinically relevant anatomy flash card set based on concepts and full color images in. Gray's Anatomy for Students Flash Cards - Third Edition [UnitedVRG].pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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This article contains Gray's Anatomy for Students Flash Cards PDF for free download. Gray's Anatomy Flash Cards are a must have. Anatomy Muscles Flashcards. Pages Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body What is Magoosh Vocab Flashcard eBook. Netter's Anatomy Flash Cards – Section 6 – List. 4th Edition bernasungueta.gae. com/course//. Section 6. Upper Limb (66 cards).
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Our interactive player makes it easy to find solutions to Saunders Veterinary Anatomy Flash Cards problems you're working on - just go to the chapter for your book. Hit a particularly tricky question? Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam. The best part? Trauma to the neck may damage the ansa cervicalis C and its branches, leading to paralysis of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscles.
Because these muscles are critical in the process of swallowing, dysphagia difficulty in swallowing may ensue. Cricothyroid muscle Origin: Arises from the anterolateral part of the cricoid cartilage. Inserts into the inferior aspect and inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage. Stretches and tenses the vocal folds. External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of the vagus.
This muscle is innervated by the small, external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of the vagus. Most of the superior laryngeal nerve continues as an internal branch that pierces the thyrohyoid membrane to provide sensory innervation above the vocal folds.
This muscle, similar to the other muscles of the larynx, is derived embryologically from the 4th through 6th pharyngeal branchial arches. All of these laryngeal muscles are innervated by the vagus nerve. Damage on 1 side to the superior laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve CN X , will paralyze the ipsilateral cricothyroid muscle.
Anatomy Muscles Flashcards
Consequently, the voice will be affected because the ipsilateral vocal fold cannot be fully stretched and tensed. Additionally, the ipsilateral laryngeal mucosa above the level of the vocal folds will be anesthetized the superior laryngeal nerve is sensory to the laryngeal mucosa above the vocal folds , somewhat compromising the protective gag reflex that would normally keep foreign objects from being aspirated into the larynx.
Stylohyoid muscle Origin: Elevates and retracts the hyoid bone in an action that elongates the floor of the mouth. Facial nerve. The stylohyoid muscle is perforated near its insertion by the tendon of the 2 bellies of the digastric muscle. The stylohyoid is 1 of the 3 muscles arising from the styloid process, each innervated by a different cranial nerve. The stylohyoid is one of several muscles that help stabilize the hyoid bone, which is important in movements of the tongue and in swallowing.
Digastric muscle Origin: The digastric muscle consists of 2 bellies. The posterior belly is the longest, and it arises from the mastoid notch of the temporal bone.
The anterior belly arises from the digastric fossa of the mandible. The 2 bellies end in an intermediate tendon that perforates the stylohyoid muscle and is connected to the body and greater horn of the hyoid bone. Elevates the hyoid bone and, when both muscles act together, helps the lateral pterygoid muscles open the mouth by depressing the mandible. The anterior belly is innervated by the mylohyoid nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
The posterior belly is innervated by the facial nerve. The 2 bellies of the digastric muscle are unique because they are innervated by different cranial nerves. The digastric muscles are important for opening the mouth symmetrically and are assisted by the lateral pterygoid muscles. Oblique arytenoid muscles 2. Transverse arytenoid muscles Origin: Arise from the arytenoid cartilages. Attach to the opposite arytenoid cartilage. Close the inlet of the larynx by adducting the arytenoid cartilages.
This narrows the rima glottidis, the space between the vocal folds. Recurrent laryngeal nerve of the vagus. Some muscle fibers of the oblique arytenoid continue superiorly as the ary-epiglottic muscle. The vocal folds are controlled by the laryngeal muscles, all of which are innervated by the vagus nerve CN X.
During quiet respiration, the vocal folds are gently abducted to open the rima glottidis space between the folds. In forced inspiration taking a rapid, deep breath , the folds are maximally abducted by the posterior crico-arytenoid muscles, further enlarging the rima glottidis. During phonation, the folds are adducted and tensed to create a reed-like effect similar to a reed instrument , causing vocal fold mucosal vibrations that produce sound that is then modified by the upper airway pharynx, oral cavity, tongue, lips, nose, and paranasal sinuses.
Closure of the rima glottidis occurs when holding your breath or when lifting something heavy the Valsalva maneuver , and the folds are completely adducted. Posterior crico-arytenoid muscle Origin: Arises from the posterior surface of the laminae of the cricoid cartilage. Attaches to the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. Abducts the vocal folds and widens the rima glottidis, the space between the vocal folds. Recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve of the vagus.
The posterior crico-arytenoid muscles are extremely important because they are the only muscles that abduct the vocal folds. Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during neck surgery e. This occurs because the posterior crico- arytenoid muscles are the only laryngeal muscles that abduct the vocal folds and keep the rima glottidis open.
Ary-epiglottic part of oblique 4. Thyro-arytenoid muscle arytenoid muscle 5. Lateral crico-arytenoid 2. Posterior crico-arytenoid muscle muscle 6. Vocalis muscle 3. Thyro-epiglottic part of 7. Vocal ligament thyro-arytenoid muscle 8.
Conus elasticus Comment: The muscles of the larynx are small. They act on the laryngeal cartilages. The most superior portion of the conus elasticus is thickened and forms the vocal ligament. The vocal folds themselves contain a small amount of muscle called the vocalis muscle, which is derived from some of the fibers of the thyro-arytenoid muscle. With the exception of the cricothyroid, all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the vagus.
All of these muscles are derived embryologically from the 4th through 6th pharyngeal branchial arches. During quiet respiration, the vocal folds are gently abducted to open the rima glottidis. In forced inspiration, the folds are maximally abducted by the posterior crico-arytenoid muscles, further enlarging the rima glottidis. During phonation, the folds are adducted and tensed to create a reed-like effect, causing vocal fold mucosal vibrations that produce sound that is then modified by the upper airway pharynx, oral cavity, tongue, lips, nose, paranasal sinuses.
Closure of the rima glottidis occurs when holding your breath or when lifting something heavy, and the folds are completely adducted. Scalene muscles Origin superior attachment: The anterior scalene arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of C vertebrae. The middle and posterior scalenes arise from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of C middle and C posterior vertebrae.
Insertion inferior attachment: The anterior scalene attaches to the scalene tubercle of the 1st rib. The middle scalene attaches to the superior surface of the 1st rib. The posterior scalene attaches to the external border of the 2nd rib.
The anterior and middle scalenes elevate the 1st rib. When that rib is fixed, they also flex the neck forward and laterally and rotate it to the opposite side. The posterior scalene raises the 2nd rib and flexes and slightly rotates the neck. The anterior scalene is innervated by C ventral rami; the middle scalene, by C ventral rami; and the posterior scalene, by ventral rami of C The scalene muscles are often called lateral vertebral muscles. They form a large portion of the floor of the posterior cervical triangle.
Components of the brachial plexus can be seen emerging between the anterior and middle scalene muscles. The scalene muscles are accessory muscles of respiration and help elevate the first 2 ribs during deep or labored breathing. They are crossed by the accessory nerve CN XI as it passes between the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. The phrenic nerve C is observed on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene muscle; it courses inferiorly toward the diaphragm, which it innervates.
Trauma to the neck can damage these nerves. Longus capitis muscle 2. Longus colli muscle Origin: The longus capitis arises from the anterior tubercles of the C vertebral transverse processes.
The longus colli arises from the bodies of the T vertebrae, the bodies of the C vertebrae, and transverse processes of the C vertebrae. The longus capitis attaches to the basilar portion of the occipital bone.
The colli portion attaches to the anterior tubercle of the atlas C1 , the bodies of the C vertebrae, and transverse processes of the C vertebrae. Both muscles flex the neck, although the longus colli is weak. The longus colli also slightly rotates and laterally bends the neck. The longus capitis is supplied by the C ventral rami. The longus colli is supplied by the C ventral rami. The longus capitis and longus colli lie in front of the cervical vertebrae and are often called prevertebral muscles.
They help other muscles flex the cervical spine. They are encased in a strong fascial sleeve called the prevertebral fascia and do not tolerate swelling well because of this tight enclosure. Just anterior to the prevertebral fascia, where it covers the bodies of the cervical vertebrae, lies the retropharyngeal space this space is posterior to the buccopharyngeal fascia [the posterior portion of the pretracheal fascia] covering the posterior pharynx and esophagus.
Infections in this vertical space may pass superiorly to the base of the skull or inferiorly into the posterior mediastinum of the thorax. Supra-orbital nerve 2. Infra-orbital nerve 3. Mental nerve 4. Buccal nerve 5. Auriculotemporal nerve 6. Supraclavicular nerves C3, C4 7. Great auricular nerve C2, C3 8.
Greater occipital nerve C2 Comment: Cutaneous innervation of the face is by the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve CN V. The ophthalmic division is represented largely by the supra-orbital and supratrochlear nerves. The maxillary division is represented by the infra-orbital and zygomaticotemporal nerves. The mandibular division is represented largely by the mental, buccal, and auriculotemporal nerves.
The skin on the back of the scalp receives cutaneous innervation from the greater occipital nerve dorsal ramus of C2 ; the skin on the back of the neck receives innervation from dorsal rami of cervical nerves. The 1st cervical nerve C1 has few if any sensory nerve fibers from the skin, so it is usually not shown on dermatome charts. The sensory innervation of the face is via the 3 divisions of CN V. Trauma anywhere along the pathway of the nerve, including that on the face itself e.
The innervation of the muscles of facial expression will not be affected unless a laceration also damages the terminal branches of the facial nerve. Main trunk of facial nerve emerging from stylomastoid foramen 2.
Cervical branch 3. Marginal mandibular branch 4. Buccal branches 5. Zygomatic branches 6. Temporal branches Comment: The main trunk of the facial nerve exits through the stylomastoid foramen and, after giving off several small branches, courses through the substance of the parotid gland.
It ends as a plexus of 5 major terminal branches that innervate the muscles of facial expression. The 5 groups of terminal branches are the temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, and cervical branches.
A mnemonic— To Zanzibar By Motor Car named from superior to inferior —might help in remembering the names of these 5 terminal branches. Facial expression on the affected side is minimal.
Often, over time, the symptoms will disappear, but this may take weeks or months to occur. Schema 1. Ciliary ganglion 2. Short ciliary nerves 3. Inferior division of oculomotor nerve 4. Pterygopalatine ganglion 5.
Abducent nerve CN VI 6. Ophthalmic nerve CN V1 7. Parasympathetic fibers arise in the brainstem and course with the oculomotor nerve to the ciliary ganglion. Postganglionic parasympathetics innervate the ciliary muscle which accommodates the lens and the sphincter muscle of the pupil. Sympathetic fibers that synapse in the superior cervical ganglion send postganglionic fibers to the dilator muscle of the pupil.
Sensory innervation to the orbit arises from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Unilateral damage to the oculomotor nerve CN III can paralyze the 4 extra-ocular muscles innervated by this nerve superior, medial, and inferior rectus muscles and inferior oblique muscle and the levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the upper eyelid, causing ophthalmoplegia and ptosis drooping of the eyelid.
Additionally, parasympathetic fibers in CN III will be affected, causing pupillary dilation unopposed sympathetic innervation of the dilator of the pupil and an inability to accommodate the lens for close-up vision on the affected ipsilateral side. Trochlear nerve IV 2.
Ophthalmic nerve V1 3. Optic nerve II 4. Oculomotor nerve III 5. Abducent nerve VI 6. Trigeminal semilunar ganglion 7. Frontal nerve 8. Lacrimal nerve 9. Supra-orbital nerve Comment: The sensory innervation to the orbit arises from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. The major nerves of this division include the nasociliary, frontal, and lacrimal nerves. The sensory nerve cell bodies reside in the trigeminal semilunar ganglion. The motor innervation of the extra-ocular muscles comes from the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent nerves.
The optic nerve leaves the orbit via the optic canal. In addition to its sensory role and, similar to the other 2 divisions of the trigeminal nerve, this division carries autonomic fibers to the eyeball via its nasociliary nerve and connections to the ciliary ganglion long and short ciliary nerves. Additionally, it carries parasympathetics from the facial nerve CN VII that join the lacrimal branch and innervate the lacrimal glands, which produce tears that moisten the cornea of the eyeball.
Orbital trauma or infections in this confined compartment may affect these important autonomic pathways. Auriculotemporal nerve 2. Chorda tympani nerve 3.
Lingual nerve 4. Inferior alveolar nerve cut 5. Nerve to mylohyoid 6. Mental nerve 7. Submandibular ganglion 8. Buccal nerve and buccinator muscle cut 9. Mandibular nerve V3 anterior division and posterior division Comment: The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve exits the skull through the foramen ovale and divides into sensory and motor components.
This nerve provides motor control to many of the muscles derived from the 1st branchial arch, most notably the muscles of mastication. The sensory components are represented largely by the auriculotemporal, buccal, lingual, and inferior alveolar nerves. Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers arising from the facial nerve join the lingual nerve via the chorda tympani nerve to synapse in the submandibular ganglion. These postganglionic parasympathetics innervate the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands and the minor salivary glands of the mandibular submucosa.
Trigeminal neuralgia tic douloureux is a neurologic condition characterized by episodes of brief, intense facial pain over 1 of the 3 regions of distribution of CN V. The etiology is uncertain but could be from vascular compression of the CN V sensory ganglion and usually is triggered by touch and drafts of cool air on the face. Olfactory bulb 2. Lateral internal nasal branch of anterior ethmoidal nerve CN V1 3.
Nasopalatine nerve CN V2 5. Nerve vidian of pterygoid canal 6. Deep petrosal nerve 7. Greater petrosal nerve 8. Pterygopalatine ganglion Comment: Vessels of the nasal cavity receive innervation from sympathetic and, to a lesser extent, parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic contributions arise in the deep petrosal nerve as postganglionic fibers that are largely vasomotor in function. Parasympathetic fibers arise in the facial nerve as preganglionics, course to the pterygopalatine ganglion in the greater petrosal and vidian nerves, and synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion.
Postganglionic fibers pass to the nasal mucosa, the hard and soft palates, and the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses. Facial fractures may involve a fracture of the cribriform plate, which transmits the axons of the olfactory bipolar neurons. As a brain tract, CN I is covered by the 3 meningeal layers and contains cerebrospinal fluid CSF in its subarachnoid space around the olfactory bulb. A tear of the meninges can cause a leakage of CSF into the nasal cavity and provide a route of infection from the nose to the brain.
Nasopalatine nerve septal branch 2. Pterygoid canal behind ganglionic branches connecting maxillary nerve [CN V2] and pterygopalatine ganglion 3. Maxillary nerve CN V2 4. Infra-orbital nerve 6. Posterior superior alveolar nerve 7. Greater and lesser palatine nerves 8.
Lesser and greater palatine arteries 9. Anterior and middle superior alveolar arteries Superficial temporal artery Maxillary artery Descending palatine artery Infra-orbital artery Sphenopalatine artery Comment: Nerves are shown on 1 side and arteries on the other. This region is largely supplied by branches of the maxillary nerve V2 and by arterial branches of the maxillary artery from the external carotid.
The maxillary teeth and gums are supplied by the posterior, middle, and anterior superior alveolar neurovascular bundles. Nerve vidian of pterygoid 6. Superior cervical canal sympathetic ganglion 2.
Submandibular ganglion 3. Pterygopalatine ganglion 4. Otic ganglion 9. Ciliary ganglion 5. Chorda tympani nerve Comment: This schematic shows the 4 parasympathetic ganglia in the head.
The ciliary ganglion receives preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the oculomotor nerve. The otic ganglion receives preganglionic parasympathetic fibers that arise in the glossopharyn- geal nerve.
The pterygopalatine and submandibular ganglia receive preganglionic parasympathetics that originate in the facial nerve.
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers arise from the upper thoracic spinal cord levels. They ascend the sympathetic trunk to synapse on postganglionic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers travel on blood vessels or adjacent nerves to reach their targets. These sympathetic postganglionic fibers are largely vasomotor in function.
Its cardinal ipsilateral features are miosis constricted pupil , slight ptosis drooping of the eyelid due to loss of the superior tarsal muscle , anhidrosis loss of sweat gland function , and flushing of the face unopposed vasodilation. Optic nerve CN II 7.
Ciliary ganglion 8. Internal carotid nerve and 3. Maxillary nerve CN V2 nerve plexus 4. Artery and nerve of 9. Accessory nerve CN XI pterygoid canal Internal jugular vein 5. Greater petrosal nerve Internal carotid artery 6. Internal carotid artery Superior cervical ganglion Petrosal part and venous Descending palatine artery plexus Comment: The pathway of the internal carotid artery ICA is tortuous.
It enters the skull via the carotid canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone and then is directed anteromedially and superiorly across the foramen lacerum closed by cartilage. The ICA then ascends into the cavernous sinus and, just inferior to the anterior clinoid process, makes a degree turn to pass posteriorly to join in the cerebral arterial circle of Willis.
A venous plexus accompanies the ICA from the carotid canal to the cavernous sinus, as does a plexus of postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers called the deep petrosal nerve from the superior cervical ganglion.
The deep petrosal nerve joins the greater petrosal nerve preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from CN VII to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal vidian nerve.
Geniculum of facial nerve site of geniculate ganglion 2. Greater petrosal nerve 3. Cochlear spiral ganglion 4. Chorda tympani nerve 6. Facial canal and nerve 7. Vestibular ganglion Comment: The facial and vestibulocochlear nerves traverse the internal acoustic meatus together.
The facial nerve makes a sharp bend at the level of the geniculate sensory ganglion of the facial nerve before descending and exiting the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. It sends preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the pterygopalatine ganglion via the greater petrosal nerve and to the submandibular ganglion via the chorda tympani nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve carries special sensory fibers from the cochlea via the cochlear nerve auditory and from the vestibular apparatus via the vestibular nerve balance.
These 2 branches join and leave the inner ear via the internal acoustic meatus to pass to the brain. Vertigo is a symptom involving the peripheral vestibular system or its central nervous system connections and is characterized by the illusion or perception of motion. Geniculate ganglion of 9.
Pharyngeal plexus facial nerve Carotid branch of CN IX 2. Superior cervical ganglion 3. Deep petrosal nerve Vagus nerve 4. Lesser petrosal nerve Jugular foramen 5. Otic ganglion Glossopharyngeal nerve 6. Auriculotemporal nerve Inferior salivatory nucleus CN V3 7. Parotid gland 8. The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates only 1 muscle stylopharyngeus but receives significant general sensory distribution from the pharynx, posterior third of the tongue, middle ear, and auditory tube.
CN IX is the nerve of the 3rd pharyngeal branchial embryonic arch. The special sense of taste posterior third of the tongue also is conveyed by this nerve.
Cardiovascular sensory fibers include those associated with the carotid body chemoreceptor and carotid sinus baroreceptor region adjacent to the common carotid artery bifurcation. Placing a tongue depressor on the posterior third of the tongue elicits a gag reflex, mediated by the sensory fibers of CN IX on the posterior third of the tongue, which then triggers a gag and elevation of the soft palate, mediated largely by the vagus nerve CN X. Ansa cervicalis Superior root; Inferior root 3.
Vagus nerve CN X 4. Phrenic nerve 5. Accessory nerve CN XI 6. Lesser occipital nerve 7. Great auricular nerve Comment: The cervical plexus arises from ventral rami of C It provides motor innervation for many of the muscles of the anterior and lateral compartments of the neck.
This plexus also provides cutaneous innervation to the skin of the neck. Most of the motor contributions to the infrahyoid muscles arise from a nerve loop called the ansa cervicalis C The cervical plexus also gives rise to the first 2 of 3 roots contributing to the phrenic nerve C3, C4, and C5. The phrenic nerve innervates the abdominal diaphragm.
Unilateral trauma to the posterior cervical triangle of the neck may injure the accessory nerve CN XI ipsilateral innervation of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles , the phrenic nerve C innervates the ipsilateral hemi- diaphragm , or the trunks or cords of the brachial plexus. The integrity of each of these nerves should be assessed when trauma is evident.
Facial artery and vein 2. Retromandibular vein 3. External jugular vein 4. Anterior jugular vein 5. Common carotid artery 6. Internal jugular vein 7. Superior thyroid artery and vein 8. External carotid artery Comment: Superficial veins of the neck include the external jugular vein and its principal tributaries.
The external jugular vein often communicates with the internal jugular vein, which lies deep within the carotid sheath. The principal arteries of the neck include major branches arising from the subclavian artery thyrocervical and costocervical trunks and several branches arising from the external carotid artery.
Physicians use the internal jugular vein or external jugular on the right side to assess the jugular venous pulse, which provides an indication of the venous pressure in the right atrium of the heart. If the waveform pattern of the pulse is abnormal, it may indicate some pathology associated with right-sided congestive heart failure, a tricuspid valve problem, or some other abnormality.
Vertebral artery 6. Thyrocervical trunk 2. Costocervical trunk 7. Common carotid artery 3. Supreme intercostal artery 8.
Transverse cervical artery 4. Internal thoracic artery 9. Inferior thyroid artery 5. Suprascapular artery Comment: The subclavian artery is divided into 3 parts relative to the anterior scalene muscle. The 1st part is medial to the muscle, the 2nd is posterior, and the 3rd is lateral. Branches of the subclavian include the vertebral and internal thoracic mammary arteries, thyrocervical and costocervical trunks, and dorsal scapular artery.
The vertebral artery ascends through the C transverse foramina and enters the foramen magnum. The internal thoracic descends parasternally. The thyrocervical trunk supplies the thyroid gland inferior thyroid , the lower region of the neck transverse cervical , and the dorsal scapular region suprascapular. The costocervical trunk supplies the deep neck deep cervical and several intercostal spaces supreme intercostal. The dorsal scapular branch is inconstant; it may arise from the transverse cervical artery.
The branches of the subclavian artery anastomose with branches of the axillary artery around the shoulder joint, with branches of the thoracic aorta intercostal branches along the rib cage, across the midline of the neck and face via branches from both external carotid arteries, and with the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral branches circle of Willis on the brainstem.
These interconnections are important if the vasculature in 1 region is compromised. Superficial temporal artery 7. Ascending pharyngeal 2. Occipital artery artery 3. Internal carotid artery 8. Lingual artery 4. External carotid artery 9. Facial artery 5. Common carotid artery Posterior auricular artery 6.
Superior thyroid artery and Maxillary artery Superior laryngeal branch Comment: The common carotid artery ascends in the neck in the carotid sheath.
At about the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage it divides into the internal carotid artery, which passes into the cranium, and the external carotid artery, which supplies more superficial structures lying outside the skull. The external carotid artery gives rise to 8 branches. These 8 branches supply much of the blood to the head outside of the cranium, although several branches also ultimately enter the cranial regions meningeal and auricular branches of the maxillary artery, 1 of the terminal branches of the external carotid.
The branches of the external carotid arteries anastomose across the midline neck superior thyroid arteries and the face to provide collateral circulation should an artery be compromised by occlusion or lacerated in trauma.
The small branches of the superficial temporal artery supply the scalp, which bleeds profusely when cut because the small arteries are held open rather than retracted into the subcutaneous tissue by the tough connective tissue lying just beneath the skin epidermis and dermis.
Manubrium of sternum 3. This is used as a reference point for counting ribs. Xiphoid process 7. This elevation marks the articulation of rib II with the sternum. Attachment site for rib I Sternum 1. Articular facets for rib VII 8. Transverse ridges 5.
Body of sternum 6. Articular demifacets for rib II Jugular notch 2. Costal cartilage 4. Superior costal facet 2. Inferior costal facet Intervertebral disc 8. This pump-handle type of movement changes the anteroposterior dimensions of the thorax. Because the midshaft of each rib tends to be lower than the two ends.
Superior articular process 7. Costal facet on transverse process 6. When the ribs are depressed. When the ribs are elevated. Body of sternum 3. Rib V 5. This bucket-handle movement changes the lateral dimensions of the thorax.
The anterior ends of the ribs are inferior to the posterior ends. Internal intercostal muscle Costal groove 8. Endothoracic fascia 7. Intercostal vein 4. Innermost intercostal muscle 9. Parietal pleura 6. Collateral branches 5.
They also provide structural support to the thoracic wall during breathing. Intercostal artery 3. Thoracic Wall 1. Intercostal nerve 2. Internal thoracic artery 7. Posterior intercostal artery 5. Internal intercostal muscle 3. Right lung 9. Anterior ramus of spinal nerve intercostal nerve 8.
Left lung Thoracic Cavity 1. Innermost intercostal muscle 4. Anterior intercostal artery 6. External intercostal muscle 2. Anterior intercostal artery and vein 3. Internal thoracic artery and vein 4. Anterior perforating branches of intercostal vessels 5. Posterior intercostal artery and vein 2. Anterior cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve 6. The tube is inserted over the superior aspect of the rib because insertion at the inferior border of the rib could injure the intercostal vein.
Lateral branches of intercostal nerve and vessels 7. Trauma or injury to the root of the neck can involve the superior extension of the pleura. Mediastinum 3.
Body of sternum 7. Sternal angle 6. Manubrium of sternum 5. Pleural Cavity 1. Left pleural cavity 4. Right pleural cavity 2. Xiphoid process 8. Pleural cavity 4. Pleura 1. Parietal pleura 2. Mediastinum 5. Visceral pleura 3. The surface of the lung is covered by visceral pleura. Left lung 6. Parietal Pleura 1. Pulmonary ligament 4. Mediastinal part 5. The visceral pleura is innervated by general visceral afferent GVA fibers and is relatively insensitive to painful stimuli.
Costal part 3. Cervical pleura 2. Inferior lobe 3. The surface of the middle lobe lies mainly adjacent to the lower anterior and lateral walls. Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Diaphragm Oblique fissure 2. When listening to breath sounds from each of the lobes. Rib I 7. Esophagus 9. Left brachiocephalic vein 8. Right Lung 1. Heart Superior lobe 6. The costal surface of the inferior lobe is in contact with the posterior and inferior walls.
Subclavian vein Horizontal fissure 5. Middle lobe 4. Left subclavian artery 5. Heart 8. Diaphragm 9. Superior lobe 2. Left Lung 1. Esophagus Left brachiocephalic vein 6. Oblique fissure 4. Aortic arch 7. Thoracic aorta Pulmonary trunk 4. Superior vena cava 2. Ascending aorta 3. Right main bronchus 5.
Esophagus 6. Thoracic aorta 7. Left Pulmonary Artery 1. Right pulmonary artery 5. Right Pulmonary Artery 1. Superior mediastinum 2. Inferior mediastinum 4. Anterior mediastinum 3. Middle mediastinum 5. Subdivisions 1. A transverse plane extending from the sternal angle the junction between the manubrium and the body of the sternum to the intervertebral disc between vertebrae TIV and TV separates the mediastinum into the superior mediastinum and the inferior mediastinum. Parietal layer of serous pericardium 4.
Pericardium 1. Fibrous pericardium 3. Junction between fibrous pericardium and adventitia of great vessels 2. A rapid accumulation of excess fluid within the pericardial sac can compress the heart and is known as cardiac tamponade. Pericardial cavity 5.
Pericardial Sinuses 1. Arch of aorta 2. Cut edge of pericardium 6. Transverse pericardial sinus separates arteries from veins Oblique pericardial sinus formed by reflection onto the pulmonary veins of heart 5.
Branch of right pulmonary artery Left pulmonary artery 3. Right pulmonary veins 9. Common causes are viral and bacterial infections and systemic illnesses. Abnormal thickening of the pericardial sac constrictive pericarditis can compress the heart. Inferior vena cava 8. Left pulmonary veins 4. Anterior Surface of the Heart 1. Great cardiac vein 3. Right ventricle 6. Right atrium 8. Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery 4. Left auricle 2. Left ventricle 5. Small cardiac vein 7.
Right atrium 2. It does not include the base of the heart.
Middle cardiac vein 5. Coronary sinus 8. Marginal branch of right coronary artery 3. Posterior interventricular branch of right coronary artery 6.
Left ventricle 7. Right ventricle 4. Crista terminalis 8. Fossa ovalis 6. The foramen ovale allows oxygenated blood entering the right atrium to pass directly to the left atrium and bypass the lungs.
Right Atrium 1. Valve of inferior vena cava 5. Opening of coronary sinus 3. Valve of coronary sinus 4. Musculi pectinati 7. Right auricle 2.
Posterior papillary muscle 7. Conus arteriosus 3. Anterior papillary muscle 8. Trabeculae carneae 6. Septomarginal trabecula 5. The resulting valve dysfunction produces abnormal pressure changes in the right atrium and right ventricle. Septal papillary muscle 4. Pulmonary valve 2. Right Ventricle 1. Left atrium 3. Mitral valve 4. Valve of foramen ovale 2. Left Atrium 1. Both stenosis and incompetence lead to a poorly functioning valve and subsequent heart changes. Mitral valve anterior cusp 6.
Trabeculae carneae 4. Chordae tendineae 2. Anterior papillary muscle 3.
They occur frequently in the membranous portion of the septum and allow blood to move from the high-pressure left ventricle to the lower-pressure right ventricle. This leads to right ventricular hypertrophy and possible pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Left Ventricle 1. Posterior papillary muscle 5. Right dome of diaphragm 9.
Left ventricle 6. Clavicle 3. Left dome of diaphragm 7. Plain Chest Radiograph 1. Aortic arch 4. Costodiaphragmatic recess 8. Right atrium Trachea 2. Pulmonary trunk 5. Right atrium 6. Chambers of the Heart 1. Right ventricle 7. Left atrium 4. Left ventricle 2. Interventricular septum 3. Thoracic aorta 5. Circumflex branch 3. Left marginal branch 4. Several procedures are available to improve blood flow in partially or completely occluded coronary arteries. Left coronary artery 2. Diagonal branch 7.
Anterior interventricular branch 5. Right ventricle Marginal branch 9. Posterior interventricular branch 8. Right coronary artery Coronary Arteries 1. Middle cardiac vein 4. Anterior interventricular vein 3.
Coronary sinus 7. Great cardiac vein 2. Anterior cardiac veins of right ventricle 8. Coronary Veins 1. Right marginal vein 5. Small cardiac vein 6. Conduction System 1. Right ventricle 5. Atrioventricular node 6. Left ventricle 8. Atrioventricular bundle 2. Septomarginal trabecula 4. The cardiac conduction system coordinates contractions. Sinu-atrial node 7. Right bundle branch 3. Pulmonary trunk Left main bronchus Left subclavian vein 7. Esophagus 3. Arch of aorta 9.
Right main bronchus Right internal jugular vein Superior Mediastinum 1. Left pulmonary artery Left internal jugular vein 5. Left common carotid artery 4. Right pulmonary artery Left subclavian artery 6. Right vagus nerve Trachea Left brachiocephalic vein 4. Left subclavian artery 8. Left vagus nerve 7. CT enables any abnormal structures e. Right phrenic nerve Left recurrent laryngeal nerve 9. Left common carotid artery 6.
TIII Brachiocephalic trunk 2. Thoracic duct Left phrenic nerve 5. Left vagus nerve 5.
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If it occurs in the ascending aorta or arch. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve Right common carotid artery Right brachiocephalic vein 7. The splitting occurs between the intima and media anywhere along its length. Right subclavian artery 9. Right vagus nerve 8. Significant mobility exists in the vertical positioning of this structure as it passes through the superior mediastinum.
Arch of aorta 5. Left main bronchus 7. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve 2. Ligamentum arteriosum 6. Pulmonary trunk 8. Breathing and pathologic processes can cause positional shifts in the trachea. Right main bronchus 9. Left vagus nerve 4. Esophageal plexus 8. Superior vena cava 5. Diaphragm 7. Right phrenic nerve 6.
Right brachiocephalic vein 3. If this occurs. Bronchus It passes between the pulmonary artery and the aorta and may be compressed by a mass in this region. Left subclavian artery 4. Bronchus 8. Left pulmonary artery 7. Left superior intercostal vein 2. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve 6. Left Lateral View 1. This compression results in paralysis of the left vocal cord and hoarseness of the voice. Posterior Mediastinum 1. Left main bronchus 5. Esophagus 7.
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Right main bronchus 8. Brachiocephalic trunk 9. Diaphragm 6. Where esophagus is crossed by left main bronchus constriction 4. Posterior vagal trunk Junction of esophagus with pharynx constriction 2. Pharynx 9.
Ingested corrosive substances may pass slowly through the narrowed region. Left vagus nerve Esophagus 8. Trachea 7. Constrictions may present problems during the passage of instruments. Where esophagus is crossed by arch of aorta constriction 3.
At the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm constriction 5. A swallowed object may lodge at a potential constriction.
Stomach Esophageal plexus Anterior vagal trunk Mediastinal branches 5. Thoracic Aorta and Branches 1. Posterior intercostal arteries 7. Superior left bronchial artery 4. Esophageal branches 6. Arch of aorta 3.
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Left subclavian artery 2. Azygos vein 7. Esophagus 2. Accessory hemi-azygos vein 5. Hemi-azygos vein 6. Thoracic duct 3. Gray and white rami communicantes 6.
They are less involved in the relay of pain recognition. Least splanchnic nerve 4. The visceral afferents that pass through the sympathetic trunks and the splanchnic nerves are the primary participants in the detection of pain from the viscera and the transmission of this information to the central nervous system.
Sympathetic trunk 7. Intercostal nerve anterior ramus of a thoracic spinal nerve 5. Greater splanchnic nerve 2. Lesser splanchnic nerve 3. Innervation Posterior Abdominal Region: Muscles Inferior Vena Cava Lumbar Plexus.
Portal System Inguinal Region:Patella 8. Vertebral artery 5. Cricoid cartilage 9. Kennedy Blvd. Anatomy of exotic animals includes coverage on rodents, rabbits, ferrets, lizards, and more to ensure you are up to speed on all the small mammals and reptiles that you may encounter in veterinary practice. Short head of biceps femoris External oblique muscle 4.
All of the muscles of facial expression are derived embryologically from the 2nd pharyngeal branchial arch and are innervated by the terminal branches of the facial nerve CN VII. Intergluteal cleft Buccal nerve 5.
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