INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY Introduction The role and function of the ILO Major occupational health and safety. Introduction to. International Health and Safety at Work. This publication is endorsed by NEBOSH as offering high quality support for the delivery of NEBOSH. International standards for health and safety at work months after their date of introduction. However ISBN: (web pdf).

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The policy must be developed in line with international guidelines (on which this . promote occupational health and safety in the workplace in order to increase Health. Canada. Essentials of health and safety at work – one of the most useful books you'll ever download. Page 1 of . work are across all businesses in the UK – see the ' Introduction' section for more details. .. web/slipspdf (web only). Slips and trips. Publications Bureau (Rights and Permissions), International Labour Office, CH- Geneva 22, . Actions. ACTRAV's work concept, which includes an active presence in the field, training or information . About this series of Health, Safety and Environment (HS&E) Manuals Aims of INTRODUCTION.

These good practice guidelines are for persons conducting a business or undertaking PCBUs with a role in designing structures, plant or substances.

These people may include: designers PCBUs who are employing or engaging designers of structures, plant or substances to be used, or could reasonably be expected to be used, at work people who make decisions about the design or redesign of structures, plant or substances external experts who contribute to design projects. The guidelines are for people who want to learn about designing with health and safety in mind.

These guidelines could be used for projects of varying sizes. These guidelines are based on guidance produced by Safe Work Australia. These guidelines cover the basic principles of Health and Safety by Design.

Examples of designers could include, but are not limited to, architects, industrial designers, engineers and software designers. Designers are in a strong position to make work healthy and safe from the start of the design process. Health and Safety by Design is not a separate concept from good design — they are the same thing. Figure 1 shows the decrease in ability to influence safety that a PCBU has over the lifecycle of a product.

It is important to think about health and safety risks at the design stage. Good design reduces damage to property and the environment, and the related costs. The most effective risk control measure — eliminating hazards — is often cheaper and more practicable to achieve at the design or planning stage than managing risks later in the lifecycle.

The design of plant or structures contributes to a significant proportion of work-related injuries, and solutions already exist for many of those design problems. It is more efficient and effective to manage risk in the design phase than to retrofit health and safety solutions. Design based on Health and Safety by Design principles can reduce the need for retrofitting, personal protective equipment, health monitoring, exposure monitoring, and maintenance.

Smart design of products can help provide a high level of protection for end users Workers have the right to the highest level of protection, so far as is reasonably practicable.

Managing risks in the design stage of a product is an effective way of providing the best protection. It is more effective than, for example, retrofitting a product later in its lifecycle. Smart design of products makes good business sense Eliminating health and safety risks before they happen makes good business sense for PCBUs. People who work in safe, healthy conditions are less likely to take time off work and will be more engaged and positive in their job.

This has been expressed directly or indirectly in various definitions and approaches to CSR developed in the last decades. According to ILO, CSR is a voluntary, enterprise-driven initiative and refers to activities that are considered to exceed compliance with the law [2].

European Commission has defined corporate social responsibility as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis". Socially responsible companies aim to go beyond minimum legal requirements and obligations stemming from collective agreements in order to address societal needs.

It means, among others, that they invest in human capital, enhance health and safety using voluntary schemes e. OSH criteria in certification of management systems, procurement, labelling, etc. According to the ISO , socially responsible organizations: are willing to incorporate social and environmental considerations in their decision-making processes and be accountable for the impacts of their decisions and activities on society and the environment, follow the general principles of social responsibility which include: accountability, transparency, ethical behaviour, respect for stakeholder interests, respect for the rule of law, respect for international norms of behaviour, respect for human rights.

1.0 Introduction

The close relationship between occupational safety and health and CSR has been confirmed by numerous case studies as well as international and national initiatives related to corporate social responsibility, which have been presented and analyzed by the European Agency of Safety and Health at Work in Developing occupational safety and health management in the framework of corporate social responsibility Corporate social responsibility CSR can influence development of occupational safety and health OSH management and particularly contribute to: [6] integration of safety and health into business processes, developing strategic approach to OSH that is compatible with strategic management, developing strategies that improve OSH but also foster innovation, combining the rational logic of prevention and safety management systems with ethical or value-driven approaches, developing the external stakeholder perspective for OSH, and involve and commit new powerful stakeholders in safety and health programs, developing more integrated approaches to safety and health, whereby occupational safety and health are no longer isolated from public safety and health, product safety, and whereby the safety and health responsibilities of companies are no longer limited to their own site.

Supporting development of integrated approaches to occupational safety and health, corporate social responsibility can link occupational safety and health management with human resources, environment, profitability and productivity [7].

CSR can also help to mainstream occupational safety and health management activities aimed at providing reasonable working hours, ensuring a proper work-life balance, promoting health and well-being, preventing harassment in the workplace, appropriate protection of vulnerable groups such as e. CSR, and especially its internal dimension, inclusive of socially responsible practices concerning employees, is of particular importance for psychosocial risks management [9]. The proposed Directives are sent to the European Parliament which is directly elected from the member states.

The European Parliament may accept, amend or reject the proposed Directives.

Environment, health and safety

The Council of Ministers consists of one senior government minister from each of the member states. The Treaty of Amsterdam renumbered them as 95A and A, respectively. Article 95A is concerned with health and safety standards of equipment and plant and its Directives are implemented in the UK by the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. Summaries of the more common UK Regulations are given in Chapter This resulted in over 5 million workers being unprotected by any health and safety legislation.

Contractors and members of the public were generally ignored. The law was more concerned with the requirement for plant and equipment to be 9 Introduction to health and safety at work industry, it took 15 years to produce the Abrasive Wheels Regulations to address the problem raised by the court judgement John Summers and Sons Ltd.

In summary, health and safety legislation before tended to be reactive rather than proactive. Lord Robens was asked, in , to review the provision made for the health and safety of people at work.

His report produced conclusions and recommendations upon which the HSW Act was based. The principal recommendations were as follows: Figure 1. This would involve the encouragement of employee participation in accident prevention. This was developed many years later into the concept of the health and safety culture. These recommendations led directly to the introduction of the HSW Act in The aim of the merger is to increase the outside, or nonexecutive, input to its work.

This should improve communication, accountability and the oversight of longer term strategy. The merger means that the size of the Board of the new Executive should be no more than 12 members.

The way we were: the evolution of health and safety

The merger does not change the fundamental dayto-day operations of the HSE but should lead to closer Health and safety foundations working throughout the organization.

Although occupational health and safety in Scotland is a reserved issue it was not devolved to the Scottish Executive , there are some differences in some areas of activity. The prime function of the HSE remains the same — to monitor, review and enforce health and safety law and to produce codes of practice and guidance.

However, the HSE also undertakes many other activities, such as the compilations of health and safety statistics, leading national health and safety campaigns, investigations into accidents or complaints, visiting and advising employers and the production of a very useful website.

Regulations are laws, approved by Parliament. It is a criminal offence to breach a Regulation and any breaches may result in enforcement action as explained later in this chapter Section 1. The HSW Act, and general duties in the Management Regulations, aim to help employers to set goals, but leave them free to decide how to control hazards and risks which they identify.

Guidance and Approved Codes of Practice give advice, but employers are free to take other routes to achieving their health and safety goals, so long as they do what is reasonably practicable. But some hazards are so great, or the proper control measures so expensive, that employers cannot be given discretion in deciding what to do about them. Some Regulations apply across all organizations — the Manual Handling Regulations would be an example.

These apply wherever things are moved by hand or bodily force. Equally, the Display Screen Equipment Regulations apply wherever visual display units are used at work. Wherever possible, the HSE will set out the Regulations as goals and describe what must be achieved, but not how it must be done. Sometimes it is necessary to be prescriptive, and to spell out what needs to be done in detail, as some standards are absolute.

For example, all mines should have two exits; contact with live electrical conductors should be avoided.


Sometimes European law requires prescription. Some activities or substances are so dangerous that they have to be licensed, for example explosives and asbestos removal. An example would be the recently privatized railway companies.Responsibility to consult, cooperate and coordinate with the designer also applies to contractors and sub-contractors who win a tender.

The exposure levels should be assessment. If the employer is unable to defend against the three criteria, two further partial defences are available. Core actions The board should consider the health and safety impli.

In a 3—4 Medium risk relatively complex workplace. It should also be fairly brief and broken down into a series of smaller statements or bullet points.

Health and safety

Could the same error be made on more than of working. All employers and self-employed people involved where required. They may also be reduced significantly by the use of detailed checklists. ILO health and well-being of individuals at the workplace.